Notes: Viruses and Toxicology

tv01 General relationship between toxins and viruses: "The association of viruses with cases of poisoning is a well recognized fact. It is illustrated by the herpes simplex that follows the injection of vaccines, milk, colloidal metals, ingestion of foodstuffs, general anaesthesia, etc. and the herpes zoster that follows the intake or injection of arsenic, bismuth and sulfonamides, and carbon monoxide, alcohol, or phenobarbital poisoning." -- Ralph Scobey, M.D., Science (1954) v51p117
tv02 Air toxics causal for both herpesvirus proliferation and encephalitis via anaesthesia formulations: In 1944, a study of 13 encephalitis victims (2 deaths and 11 various paralyzed) at the Central Middlesex County General Hospital, focused upon air toxics as the cause, in the form of anaesthesia formulations. The formulations and dosage levels varied considerably, yet, bear fundamental similarities to the record-high air toxics experienced by the WNV encephalitis victims in Queens/Bronx in 1999, in terms of ether, nitrous oxide, pure oxygen, and organochlorine.
tv03 Herpesvirus (HHV-6), having a retrovirus structure, associated with CNS neuropathology: Nicholas Regush, The Virus Within (2000), Dutton Books, Penguin Group, NY
p150: John Martin of U of SC. CFS: PCR broad search for HV types. "...low-level signals were rife..."
p151: "...searching... patients with severe CFS symptoms, notably neurological problems... the signals tuned up again and again. What surprised him was the complete lack of any sign of inflammation in the cerebro-spinal fluid biopsies. Stealth viruses? very likely. [para] ... he [also] detected... a virus with genetic ties to both herpes viruses and a retrovirus."
p163: 7/1/1996 John Martin: "...the ban imposed by the U of SC on his lab to test for stealth viruses. This highly political intervention occurred soon after he had returned to Los Angeles from his presentation in Washington to the Institute of Medicine [to NIAID]."
p169: Carrigan and Knox "...lymph nodes in AIDS patients were infected with active HHV-6,...""
p188: HHV-6 activity levels rose and fell according to levels of clinical inflammation in MS patient -- from negative to high levels of herpesvirus.
Note: see
tv04 "HSV is ubiquitous, but fortunately, only 1 or 2 cases per million infected individuals develop the encephalitis of HSV each year in the US. It is the most frequently fatal of all encephalitides."
tv05 Toxins and radiation causal for activation of viruses: One might be tempted to entertain a cofactor theory for encephalitis (toxins cause herpes proliferation which causes encephalitis), by incorporating the view espoused by Encyclopedia Britannica (1990), "Virus", where it describes some disease inflammations as extreme tissue response to virus presence. However, Britannica also views virus presence as an integral part of a ubiquitous, natural tissue response to environmental stress, such as radiation or poisoning.
tv06 D'Herelle's discovery of the bacteriophage (viruses that can lyse [break] bacteria during virus proliferation) lead in turn to the discovery that these endogenous viruses can be activated and proliferated by radiation or toxic chemicals. This phenomena is evidence of a cellular response to toxin exposure called the SOS Response, where cells can engage in various events, such as the suspension of respiration and proliferation of viruses. Viruses greatly facilitate "accelerated genetic recombination", a process whereby cells import/export and reshuffle genes in order to quickly develop methods to metabolize, ward off, or adapt to, poisons. This phenomena is clearly documented with regard to prokaryote cells. (See Mark Ptashne, The Genetic Switch, 1996).
tv07 Toxins causal for activation of Rous sarcoma virus: In 1924-1926, Albert Fischer (Copenhagen), Alexis Carrel (Rockefeller Institute, NY), and others independently brought about the regular and reliable activation of Rous virus in chickens (causing fatal cancers) by the injection of low concentrations of arsenic, and in separate experiments, with low concentrations of tar extract.
tv08 Toxins causal for activation of HTLV: "Gallo's team even had to shock the cells repeatedly with potent chemicals to coax the soundly sleeping virus out of latency." -- Peter Duesberg, Ph.D., Inventing the AIDS Virus (1996), p125
tv09 Proofs of causation for several commonly incriminated enteroviruses (coxsackievirus and echovirus) are insufficient for neurological disease. These enteroviruses are harmless passenger viruses. -- Duesberg, op. cit., p74.
tv10 Increased viral activity due to air toxics: I have found observations (with no followup) of increased virus activity in studies of the effects of high air pollution levels. [~EPA library]. Other, LD50 studies: "Groups of... rats of each sex were exposed to... methyl chloride gas 6 hr/day... Opthalmologic examinations revealed changes that were apparently due to a virus that were also present in control animals, although at a lower incidence." -- George D. Clayton, Florence E. Clayton, editors, Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 4th ed. (1994)
tv11 Proof of causation: Viropathology has a "special problem", and so, has had to rewrite the rules several times: "One of the landmarks in the study of infectious diseases was the development of the Henle-Koch postulates of causation. They were originally drawn up for bacteria and protozoa, but were revised in 1937 by Rivers and again in 1982 by Evans in attempts to accommodate the special problem of proving disease causation by viruses. The problem is still difficult, especially when viruses are considered as causative of chronic diseases (including several of the hepatitides), neoplastic diseases, and slowly progressive neurological diseases. Because most such diseases cannot be reproduced in experimental animals, virologists have had to evaluate causation indirectly via “guilt by association,” an approach that relies to a large degree on epidemiologic data and patterns of serologic reactions in populations." -- Field's Virology (1996), "Proof of Causation"

In 1957, Huebner solved the "virologists' dilemma", creating eight "considerations" for proof. Number eight was "financial support." -- Field's Virology, (1996) p32
tv12 Pathogen Confusion In Diagnosis of CNS Disease: "A recent paper by Richard T. Johnson, at the Department of Neurology, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, in Baltimore, published in the 1995 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences mentioned above, sets out evidence that has been available since the 1950s. 'In the spring of 1957,' he wrote, 'we investigated an epidemic of poliomyelitis in Hawaii...of the 39 cases of nonparalytic poliomyelitis, only four were related to type I poliovirus. There were 16 cases of echovirus 9, seven cases of Coxsackie, and four to five other enteroviruses.' [para] The very enteroviruses known to be implicated in CFS were here identified as causing 'non-paralytic polio.' CFS has often been diagnosed as 'non-paralytic polio.' And even more interestingly, two of the 38 cases of paralytic disease were not caused by the polio virus at all, but by one of the Coxsackie viruses." -- Colby, Jane. "Chronic Fatigue: A Polio By Another Name".
tv13 "Coxsackievirus and echoviruses can cause paralytic syndromes that are clinically indistinguishable from paralytic poliomyelitis..." -- John Menkes, Textbook Of Child Neurology, 5th ed. (1995) p420
tv14 A fundamental criticism of the HIV=AIDS theory is that the theory avoids toxicological considerations (AZT, protease inhibitors, nitrite drugs "poppers", etc.). This criticism is espoused by Oleopulus, Duesberg, Lanka, Ellner, et al. Similarly, my review of AIDS demographic data provided by the CDC through "The AIDS Clearinghouse" finds that legal and illegal drugs are the common denominator in AIDS victims. If toxicology were to be brought into the AIDS investigation, then the symbiotic virus theory of HIV could become dominant -- that HIV is a symbiotic genetic manifestation within acutely threatened tissue (toxins, radiation, or other stressors). As such, HIV would not need to be recognized quantitatively or be capable of isolation in its purified state.